Considering my Case For Reality project is all about striving to develop a valuable resource for students who want to defend serious fact-based science against frauds using pseudo-science masquerading as fact - a formal consideration of Critical Thinking & Reading Skills is a must.
The way towards success is by studying and learning to recognize the patterns of deceptive rhetoric. That way you become prepared for those tricks and find yourself ready and poised with effective responses.
Don't ignore the lies, use those lies to your advantage. Namely, by intelligently and confidently coming right back and spot-lighting the reality behind the concocted lie, with a compelling counter-story that explains what's actually happening within ourselves, biosphere, climate system, whatever the topic might be. Also remember, there's always an audience to consider, meaning it's worth the effort to make the malicious lie, a teaching moment.
Solid evidence along with a narrative of the story behind the science, enabling people to form a better understanding. Easier said than done, but unless we are changing minds we are losing.
Consider the philosophy of Jiu-Jitsu, which besides being about the mental discipline of a warrior, is a philosophy about winning by yielding to an opponent's force, instead of trying to oppose force with force. Rather than playing by the contrarian script, why not develop some intelligent rhetorical jiu-jitsu skills.
It starts with sharp Critical Thinking and Reading Skills, and for developing that we have clearly defined strategies. Below I share from five sources;
Critical Reading and Reading Strategy
The Foundation For Critical Thinking
The SQ3R Method of Studying
21 Century Middle School Guide Student’s Guide to Study Skills
Reading critically does not, necessarily, mean being critical of what you read. …
Critical reading means engaging in what you read by asking yourself questions such as, ‘what is the author trying to say?’ or ‘what is the main argument being presented?’
Critical reading involves presenting a reasoned argument that evaluates and analyses what you have read. Being critical, therefore - in an academic sense - means advancing your understanding, not dismissing and therefore closing off learning.
To read critically is to exercise your judgement about what you are reading – that is, not taking anything you read at face value.
When reading academic material you will be faced with the author’s interpretation and opinion. Different authors will, naturally, have different slants. You should always examine what you are reading critically and look for limitations, omissions, inconsistencies, oversights and arguments against what you are reading.
In academic circles, whilst you are a student, you will be expected to understand different viewpoints and make your own judgements based on what you have read.
As a critical reader you should reflect on:
- What the text says: after critically reading a piece you should be able to take notes, paraphrasing - in your own words - the key points.
- What the text describes: you should be confident that you have understood the text sufficiently to be able to use your own examples and compare and contrast with other writing on the subject in hand.
- Interpretation of the text: this means that you should be able to fully analyze the text and state a meaning for the text as a whole. Critical reading means being able to reflect on what a text says, what it describes and what it means by scrutinizing the style and structure of the writing, the language used as well as the content.
See also: Listening Types to learn about the importance of critical listening skills.
The Center for Critical Thinking Community Online is the world’s leading online community dedicated to teaching and advancing critical thinking. Featuring the world's largest library of critical thinking articles, videos, and books, as well as learning activities, study groups, and a social media component, this interactive learning platform is essential to anyone dedicated to developing as an effective reasoner in the classroom, in the professions, in business and government, and throughout personal life.
To read the full articles join the Center for Critical Thinking Community Online.
Consider these thoughts about the critical thinking process, and how it applies not just to our school lives but also our personal and professional lives.
“THINKING CRITICALLY AND CREATIVELY”
Critical thinking skills are perhaps the most fundamental skills involved in making judgments and solving problems. You use them every day, and you can continue improving them.
The ability to think critically about a matter—to analyze a question, situation, or problem down to its most basic parts—is what helps us evaluate the accuracy and truthfulness of statements, claims, and information we read and hear.
Critical thinking is the sharp knife that, when honed, separates fact from fiction, honesty from lies, and the accurate from the misleading. We all use this skill to one degree or another almost every day.
The academic setting demands more of us in terms of critical thinking than everyday life. It demands that we evaluate information and analyze myriad issues.
It is the environment where our critical thinking skills can be the difference between success and failure. In this environment we must consider information in an analytical, critical manner.
We must ask questions—
What is the source of this information?
Is this source an expert one and what makes it so?
Are there multiple perspectives to consider on an issue?
Do multiple sources agree or disagree on an issue?
Does quality research substantiate information or opinion?
Do I have any personal biases that may affect my consideration of this information?
It is only through purposeful, frequent, intentional questioning such as this that we can sharpen our critical thinking skills and improve as students, learners and researchers.
- define critical thinking
- identify the role that logic plays in critical thinking
- apply critical thinking skills to problem-solving scenarios
- apply critical thinking skills to evaluation of information
The Father of All Reading Methods is Alive and Kicking
What is the SQ3R method and why was it developed?
SQ3R (also known as the SQRRR method) is an acronym for a 5-step reading and study method originally suggested by Francis Pleasant Robinson in his book Effective Study. Robinson (1906-1983) was a professor of psychology at Ohio State University (OSU).
During World War II, droves of army personnel were sent to colleges and universities to attend intensive training in skills relevant to winning the war. Robinson headed the Learning and Study Skills program at OSU, and based on his research devised the SQ3R method and other techniques to help military personnel to learn specialized skills in as little time as possible.
In his commentary ahead of Veteran’s Day in 2002, Dr. Thomas G. Sticht (Harvard) called it “The reading formula that helped win World War II”.
How does it work?
SQ3R stands for
- Survey (the book/a chapter to get an overview)
- Question (ask one or more questions for each section in a chapter)
- Read (and mentally answer the questions)
- Recite (recall the answers to a section’s questions from your memory and write them down)
- Review (a complete chapter, by answering the chapter’s questions from your memory)
I'm hoping a few visitors might this helpful, it’s a wonderful lesson plan geared towards middle and high schooler students. There’s a whole bunch of useful information, conveyed in plain English, along with illustrations by Zapp, to help convey the details:
By Susan Mulcaire, MiddleSchoolGuide.com
Lesson 1: What are Study Skills
Lesson 2: Metacognition: The Self-Aware Student
Lesson 3: A Bit About Brainy
Lesson 4: Mental Throwdown: Effort vs. Intelligence
Lesson 5: What’s in Style
Lesson 6: Learning Resources and Multimodal Learning
Lesson 7: There’s More Than One Way to Be Smart!
Lesson 8: That’s My Routine and I’m Stick’n to It!
Lesson 9: The Organized Workspace
Lesson 10: Syllabusted!
Lesson 11: Getting Your Schema On!
Lesson 12: Active Learning in a Passive Learning World
Lesson 13: Battle Plan SQ3R
Lesson 14: Hey, are You Listening?
Lesson 15: Navigating Notes
Lesson 16: Cornies, and Indies, and Hybrids, Oh My!
Lesson 17: The Hidden Benefits of Outlining Your Textbook
Lesson 18: M.N.E.M.O.N.I.C.S.
Lesson 19: Meeting the Anti-Cram: Time-Spaced Learning
Lesson 20: Short Answers and Essay Test Tips
Lesson 21: So Many Choices, So Little Time!
Lesson 22: How to Trick Out Your Presentation
Lesson 23: Taming Test Anxiety
Lesson 24: So Close, Yet so Far… Distance Learning
Lesson 25: Ouch My Brain Hurts! Critical Thinking Skills
Lesson 26: Ramp Up Your Research Skills
Lesson 27: Good Citizens, Perfect Participants
Lesson 28: The Benefits of Failure
Donald Hoffman Playing Basketball in Zero-Gravity,
(Titles are linked)
Frontiers in Psychology - June 17, 2014
“Probing the interface theory of perception: Reply to commentaries, by Donald D. Hoffman, Manish Singh & Chetan Prakash"
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. volume 22, pages1551–1576(2015)
We propose that selection favors nonveridical perceptions that are tuned to fitness. Current textbooks assert, to the contrary, that perception is useful because, in the normal case, it is veridical. Intuition, both lay and expert, clearly sides with the textbooks. We thus expected that some commentators would reject our proposal and provide counterarguments that could stimulate a productive debate. … (HSP)
(3.02) Barton Anderson - Where does fitness fit in theories of perception?
(3.03) Jonathan Cohen - Perceptual representation, veridicality, and the interface theory of perception.
(3.04) Shimon Edelman - Varieties of perceptual truth and their possible evolutionary roots.
(3.05) Jacob Feldman - Bayesian inference and “truth”: a comment on Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash.
(3.06) Chris Fields -Reverse engineering the world: a commentary on Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash, “The interface theory of perception”.
(3.07) Jan Koenderink - Esse est Percipi & Verum est Factum.
(3.08) Rainer Mausfeld - Notions such as “truth” or “correspondence to the objective world” play no role in explanatory accounts of perception.
(3.09) Brian P. McLaughlin and E. J. Green - Are icons sense data?
(3.10) Zygmunt Pizlo - Philosophizing cannot substitute for experimentation: comment on Hoffman, Singh & Prakash.
(3.11) Matthew Schlesinger - Interface theory of perception leaves me hungry for more.
Student Resources - Background info:
Dr. Mark Solms deftly demystifies Chalmers’ “Hard Problem” of Consciousness, while incidentally highlighting why Hoffman’s “Conscious Agents” are luftgeschäft.
My homemade philosophical underpinnings.
Feel free to copy and share
Email: citizenschallenge gmail com